Synthesis of Sentences – Rule of Participle

Synthesis of Sentences – Use of Participle

-: Synthesis :-
(संश्लेषण)
Synthesis में दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक नया Simple, Complex या Compound Sentence बनाया जाता है।
अर्थात् हम कह सकते हैं कि synthesis  के अंतर्गत निम्नलिखित तीन शिर्षकों (headings)  का अध्ययन किया जाता है –

1. Combination of two or more Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence

2. Combination of two or more Simple Sentences into one Complex Sentence
3. Combination of two or more Simple sentences into one Compound Sentence

-: Formation of Simple Sentences :-

दो या दो से अधिक  Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक नया  Simple Sentence बनाना :-

दो या दो से अधिक  Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक नया  Simple Sentence बनाने की कुल छोटी – बड़ी  8  विधिया होती हैं ,जो इस प्रकार  हैं –

(i) Participle का प्रयोग करके

(ii) Infinitive का प्रयोग करके
(iii) Nominative Absolute का प्रयोग करके
(iv) Noun or Phrase in apposition का प्रयोग करके
(v) Noun or Gerund से पूर्व Preposition का प्रयोग करके
(vi) Adverb or Adverbial Phrase का प्रयोग करके
(vii) Adjective का प्रयोग करके
(viii) Conjunction ‘And’ का प्रयोग करके
-: Participle का प्रयोग करके :-
ऐसा word जो adjective तथा verb दोनों का कार्य करता है, participle कहलाता है।
Participle निम्नलिखित तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –
1. Present Participle
2. Perfect Participle
3. Past Participle
-: Present Participle :-
Present Participle, Verb के first form में ‘ing’ लगाने से बनता है तथा इसका हिंदी अर्थ लेने पर क्रिया के अंत में ‘हुए’ शब्द आता है ।
दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर present participle की सहायता से एक नया Simple Sentence बनाना :-
दो या दो से अधिक simple sentences को मिलाकर presnt participle की सहायता से एक नये simple sentence  का निर्माण तब करते हैं जब हमें निम्नलिखित तथ्य दिखाई दें –

(i) दिए हुए वाक्यों के subject  एक समान होने चाहिए ।
(ii) दिए हुए वाक्यों के finite Verb अलग – अलग होने चाहिए ।
(iii) दिए गए वाक्यों के finite Verbs में time interval न के बराबर हो अर्थात एक कार्य ठीक से समाप्त न हो कि दूसरा कार्य प्रारंभ हो जाए।
Note – Finite Verb ऐसा  Verb होता है जो कि वाक्य के  subject व  tense के अनुसार अपने आप को बदल सकता है।
Example – Ravi likes playing cricket.
You like playing cricket.
You liked playing cricket.
इन वाक्यों में  like शब्द  finite verb है क्योंकि यह वाक्य के  subject व  tense के अनुसार अपने आप को बदल लेता है जबकि  playing शब्द  non finite verb है क्योंकि यह वाक्य के subject व  tense के अनुसार अपने आप को नहीं बदल सकता है।

दिए गए वाक्यों के finite verbs में से उस finite verb को present participle बनाते हैं, जिससे कार्य पहले होता है।
Examples :-
Separate – She saw the lion. She ran away.
Combined – Seeing the lion, she ran away.

Separate – He jumped up,  he ran away.
Combined – Jumping up, he ran away.

Separate – The magician took pity on the mouse. He turned it into a cat.
Combined – Taking pity on the mouse, the magician turned it into a cat.

Separate – He took a pen. He wrote a letter.
Combined – Taking a pen, he wrote a letter.

Separate – He drew his sword. He attacked his enemies.
Combined – Taking his sword, he attacked his enemies.

Separate – Her husband died. She heard the news. She fainted.
Combined – Hearing the news of her husband’s death, she fainted.

Separate – Turn to the right. You will find an hospital.
Combined – Turning to the right, you will find an hospital.

Separate – I reached home.  I took off my clothes.
Combined – Reaching home, I took off my clothes.

Separate – She went up the hill.  She saw an old temple.
Combined  – Going up the hill, she saw an old temple.

Separate – We heard a terrible noise.  We turned back.
Combined – hearing a terrible noise, we turned back.

यदि दिए गए वाक्य में (is/am/are/was/were) Main Verb के रूप में हो तो इसका present participle ‘being ‘ का प्रयोग करते हैं –

Note – is/am/are/was/were – ‘Be’ Verb होते हैं इसलिए इनका  present participle ‘being’ बनता है।
यदि दिया हुआ वाक्य कोई  tense न हो और न ही वह passive voice  हो तो ऐसी स्थिति में is/am/are/was/were Main Verb के रूप में प्रयोग किए जाते हैं।

Examples –
Separate – He was hungry. He took his food.
Combined – Being hungry, he took his food.
Separate – He was ill. He didn’t go to school.
Combined – Being ill, he didn’t go to school.
Separate – He was tired of reading. He lay down in bed.
Combined – Being tired of reading, he lay down in bed.

कभी-कभी एक वाक्य का object दूसरे वाक्य का subject  हो जाता है तथा उसके बारे में कुछ बातें कही गई होती है जो प्रायः present participle में होता है अतः synthesis करते समय इसी कही गई बात को पहले वाक्य के object  के बाद लिख देते हैं।

Examples –
Separate – I saw Ravi. He was abusing his brother.
Combined – I saw Ravi abusing his brother.
Separate – We saw a parrot. It was sitting on tree.
Combined – We saw a parrot sitting on a tree.
Separate – A funny fox saw some grapes. They were hanging from a vine.
Combined – A funny fox saw some grapes hanging from a vine.
Separate – Sheela witnessed the show. She witnessed three dolls. Dolls were talking in a strange language.
Combined – Sheela witnessed the show of three dolls talking in a strange language.
Separate – A man was strolling on the  road. He was old. He had a stick in his hand.
Combined – An old man with a stick in his hand was strolling on the road.
Separate – We saw many dogs. They were barking at strangers.
Combined – We saw many dogs barking at the strangers.

-: Perfect Participle :-
Having के साथ Verb का third form लगाने से perfect participle का निर्माण Active Voice में होता है तथा Having been के साथ Verb का third form लगाने से perfect participle का निर्माण Passive Voice में होता है।
दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर Perfect  participle की सहायता से एक नया Simple Sentence बनाना :-
दो या दो से अधिक simple sentences को मिलाकर perfect participle की सहायता से एक नये simple sentence  का निर्माण तब करते हैं जब हमें निम्नलिखित तथ्य दिखाई दें –

(i) दिए हुए वाक्यों के subject  एक समान होने चाहिए ।
(ii) दिए हुए वाक्यों के finite Verb अलग – अलग होने चाहिए ।
(iii) दिए गए वाक्यों के finite Verbs में time interval पर्याप्त हो अर्थात एक कार्य ठीक से समाप्त हो जाए तभी  दूसरा कार्य प्रारंभ हो।

दिए गए वाक्यों के finite verbs में से उस finite verb को perfect participle बनाते हैं, जिससे कार्य पहले होता है।

Examples :-
Separate – I completed the work.  I went to the market.
Combined – Having completed the work, I went to the market.
Separate – He wrote a letter. He posted it.
Combined – Having written a letter, he posted it.
Separate – Ravi took his breakfast. He went to office.
Combined – Having taken his breakfast, Ravi went to office.
Separate – He was punished by teacher. He felt sorry.
Combined – Having been punished by teacher, he felt sorry.
Separate – He was disguised as a saint. He escaped to Nepal.
Combined – Have been disguised as a saint, he escaped to Nepal.

-: Past Participle :-
Past Participle, Verb का  third form होता है जो कि वाक्य में adjective का कार्य करता है।
Past Participle का प्रयोग करके दो या दो से अधिक  Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक नया Simple Sentence तब बनाया जाता है जब निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियां दिखाई दे –
(i) जब एक वाक्य का object दूसरे वाक्य में subject हो लेकिन दूसरा वाक्य Passive Voice में हो।
Examples :-
Separate – I found my pen. It was lost.
Combined – I found my lost pen.
Separate – This is a rose.  It is faded.
Combined – This is a faded rose.

Separate – I saw a snake. It was wounded.
Combined – I saw a wounded snake.

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